Bee Species Diversity
Of 2009 so you’re able to 2018, 192 bee types (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) was basically caught within the Calanques Federal Playground thru both internet and you can pan pitfall selections. They belonged to half dozen parents and you may 38 genera. Megachilidae was probably the most kinds-rich household members, accompanied by Apidae and you will Halictidae, having 53, 44, and you may 43 kinds, correspondingly. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 is actually the latest richest genus, that have 33 kinds, whereas 7 genera was in fact illustrated by the singular kinds (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Table step 1 [on line simply] ). Utilizing the jackknife step 1 and you may 2 indexes, the total bee varieties richness is estimated to-be anywhere between ± nine.89 and you may ± . The newest noticed richness thus illustrated 71.step 3 in order to 79.6% of your estimated bee richness ( Desk dos). The latest Chao1 means projected the new noticed richness getting 76.8% of your own potential restriction fullness ( Desk dos). The quintessential abundant variety was Apis mellifera L. (276 individuals), followed by Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and you will 168 some one, respectively), and you will Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 some one). In the end, fifty kinds (26%) was represented by the just one personal (singletons).
Environment Attributes from Bees
Concerning your environment faculties out of nesting choice, we identified 59 single bee varieties nesting a lot more than soil, 92 single bee species nesting below ground and you may 23 cleptoparasitic species, add up to 30.eight, 47.9, and you can a dozen.0% of the full bee types richness, correspondingly. We imagined four societal species (bumble bees and you can honey bees-2.1%). In the long run, brand new nesting needs out of fourteen kinds will still be unfamiliar (seven.3%- Supp Table 1 [on the internet merely] ). Regarding your floral diet regarding bee kinds, we unearthed that 105 kinds (54.7%) foraged into the an array of bush species (i.age., generalist types, polylectic) and you will 51 species (twenty six.5%) foraged on a single bush family or one/pair bush types (i.age., professional variety, oligolectic). Into the remaining 36 bee variety (18.8%), the brand new floral diet plan was not identified (e.g., for cleptoparasitic varieties). Yet not, really generalist species shown a desires for one otherwise several plant family members ( Supp Desk step 1 [on the web simply] ). Towards the 44 singletons, 14 bee types (28%) had been professionals, and you may nine bee kinds (18%) were cleptoparasitic ( Supp Desk 1 [on the web only] ).
A keen IUCN reputation is actually designed for 178 variety (leaving out the brand new variety complexes and you can not known kinds). One particular, 47 kinds have been classified because studies lacking (DD-twenty-six.4%), 124 kinds had been minimum alarmed (LC-69.6%), half a dozen variety was in fact near endangered (NT-3.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and you may L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and one kinds are considered threatened (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table 1 [on the web simply] ). Around three oligolectic variety have been one of the seven endangered bee kinds. An effective. ovatula and you may C. albomaculatus try pros on Fabaceae, D. argentata is an expert on the Caprifoliaceae.
From 2009 so you can 2018, 38 species of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) was basically stuck within the Calanques National Park. It belonged to help you twenty four genera ( Supp Dining table dos [on line just] ). Probably the most plentiful genera was Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 somebody), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (14 eris individuals), and you will Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de- Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville in Latreille, 1828 (thirteen somebody), while 20 species (53%) had been depicted by singular personal ( Supp Desk 2 [on the web only] ). The brand new bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) were portrayed by 20 kinds, along with five singletons (25%) ( Supp Dining table step three [on the internet only] ). The latest estimate out of full variety richness of hover flies and you may bee flies are ranging from 83 and 97 kinds with the jackknife step one and you can dos spiders, respectively. Thus, new noticed fullness portrayed 59.8–69.9% of the projected hover travel and you may bee fly richness ( Table 2).